Friday, 20 May 2016

COMMERCIAL GINGER GROWING IN UGANDA





COMMERCIAL GINGER GROWING IN UGANDA
A Value Chain and Processing Report
Ginger growing is one of the most lucrative agricultural ventures that command high prices for the final products on the market (GREEN GOLD).
As compared to other legumes and tuber crops, ginger has higher prices owing to its limited cultivation areas in the country and its long growth and gestation period of 8 months.

FIELD PREPARATION:
Normally field preparation takes place during the dry season, below are the steps to follow:-
1. Bush Clearing
2. 1st Plough, Ginger needs a well prepared field were the soils have been dug and softened such that when the crop starts growing, it easily breaks through. 
3. Leave grass to start growing again & spray with weed herbicides
4. 2nd Plough
5. Remove all the grass, roots & tree stamps
6. Ensure the garden is free of shades
7. The soils must be well drained
8. After planting, spread a layer of coffee husks as organic manure
9. Weeding should start immediately, weeds are sited
10. Application of fertizers to boost harvest is advised
11. Application of pesticides 

PLANTING & HARVESTING GINGER:
Initial planting of the ginger rhizome is the most expensive activity of the planting process. This is crucial as planting requires good timing and seeds i.e. land preparation should be done during the dry season and planting should commence before the rainy season starts. Ginger can grow in a variety of soils that have good drainage and rich in phosphoric nutrients. 
Deep loam soils are the best for the production of the crop but clay soils, sandy soils, and stony soils must be avoided. To plant an acre of Ginger, you will need 9-10 bags that is approximately 1 ton of rhizomes.

FERTILIZATION:
Coffee husks are good fertilizers for the ginger crop. An acre can take about 3 to 6 lorries. The husks can be applied before planting. They are spread out evenly in the whole field and then covered with soils. 
Also phosphate is good for fertilizing; an acre requires a supply of 50kg. These are mixed in the soils at planting. 

PLANTING THE RHIZOMES:
Ginger is propagated by dividing the root stock or rhizomes. Seeds are planted 30cm from each other in drills in the field spaced by 60cm. 

HARVESTING:
A maturity crop shows yellowing of the aerial parts and withering. The top part finally dries off and falls to the ground. It is advisable to leave the crop unharvested for the first year and it sprouts again and is harvested at the second year. In this way, the yields increase. With good farming practices, management & Care, an acre of Ginger will yield upto 10 tons. With Good prices, in an acre you can earn UG Shs 60,000,000 (Sixty Million Uganda Shillings)

Harvesting is done by uprooting the whole plant. The yields depend on many factors like fertility of the soils, supply of rains, and others but if all goes well, an acre can produce about 2 to 8 tons. 

If a kilogram is sold at sh8,000 at the field, a single ton can fetch sh8,000,000.

INTEGRATED PEST & DISEASE MANAGEMENT FOR GINGER:
1. Field hygiene is more important to manage the pests and diseases. Avoid water stagnation, provide adequate drainage, remove weeds periodically, apply only well rotted FYM compost @ 25 t/ha and thoroughly incorporate it in the soil, apply dolomite @ 2 t/ha before sowing to increase soil pH, sow ginger in raised beds of at least 25-30 cm height and provide mulching with leaves and twigs of chilaune (Schima wallichii) or Banmara (Eupatorium sp) or utis (Alnus nepalensis) or mustard oil cake @ 5 to 10 t/ha and follow crop rotation of 2 to 4 years depending on the incidence and severity of the diseases. Soil application of Biocontrol agents like T. harzianum and P. fluorescence during planting time @ 2-5% gives effective control of the diseases.
2. Use good quality rhizome for sowing. Procure disease free seeds from disease free are
3. Before sowing, treat the rhizome in hot water (51oC for 10

min) and again in solution of Bordeaux mixture 1% for 15 min. Add Streptocyclin (20g/ 100 l water) if bacterial wilt is also a problem. Dry the rhizome in shade and then sow. If cut rhizome are to be planted, they should be treated after cutting.
4. Treat rhizome with bio-inoculant Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum followed by soil application 60 days after planting to reduce rhizome rot.
5. Once the diseases is spotted in the field, remove the affected clumps and drench the soil with Bordeaux mixture 1% at 15 days interval.
6. Diseased plants should be identified while the crop is in field. Rhizomes from such plants should not be selected for the seed purpose
7. Mechanical collection and destruction of grubs, weevils, larvae and adult beetle periodically will reduce the incidence of insect pests. If white grub is predominant, apply Nimbicidine @ 2-5 ml/ l.
8. It has been observed that diseases spread fast after mother rhizome (mau) extraction. Hence, drench the soil with fungicide immediately after mau extraction and again this practice has to be followed keeping into consideration the cost – benefit ratio of mau extraction and disease incidence.

MARKET AVAILABILITY:
Fresh ginger prices are subject to fluctuations basing mainly on the different seasons. The price peaked to 6,000Ugx per kg during the dry season where there was scarcity. It then dropped to 3,000Ugx per kg during the bumper harvest when there was plenty.
Uganda is ranked 26th in Ginger production worldwide, whilst Kenya is ranked 24th, with average output per year estimated at 170 and 329 tons respectively. Uganda’s main trade partners are Tanzania, Rwanda, Kenya, Burundi and South Sudan, etc.
The ginger is partly consumed locally. There is good demand from biscuit company to produce ginger flavoured biscuits.
In Uganda the major outlets for Ginger include:
• Owino Market
• Nakasero Market
• The Breweries.

VARIETIES AVAILABLE ON THE MARKET:
Basically there are two varieties
• The land race (local) with small rhizomes
• The hybrid with big rhizomes.

USES OF GINGER PLANT
• Ginger has the following uses:
• Ginger is most commonly known for its effectiveness as a digestive aid by increasing the production of digestive fluids and saliva.
• Ginger helps relieve indigestion, gas pains, diarrhoea and stomach cramping.
• Ginger root is also used to treat nausea related to both motion sickness and morning sickness.
• Ginger’s anti-inflammatory properties helps relieve pain and reduce inflammation associated with Arthritis, Rheumatism and Muscle Spasms.
• Ginger’s therapeutic properties effectively stimulate circulation of the blood, removing toxins from the body, cleansing the bowels and kidneys, and nourishing the skin.
• Other uses for ginger root include the treatment of Asthma, Bronchitis and other Respiratory problems by loosening and expelling phlegm from the Lungs.
• Ginger root may also be used to help break fevers by warming the body and increasing perspiration.
• Ginger has long been said to have Aphrodisiac powers, taken either internally or externally. It is mentioned in the Karma Sutra.
• In the Philippines Ginger is chewed to expel evil spirits.
• It is a known Diaphoretic, meaning it causes one to sweat.
• Used in instant Masalas.
• Dried Ginger is a sort of a ready mix for all food preparations.
• In the pharmaceutical industry, Ginger is used for extracting oleoresins.

CHALLENGES:
The challenges facing farmers include the following:
• lack of planting stock
• Lack of capital to get inputs
• Lack of marketing information resulting with farmers selling at low prices

FOR MORE INFORMATION ON GINGER GROWING IN UGANDA:
To place an order for Ginger rhizomes for planting, and advise on Ginger growing, kindly call 0752-726247 or 0777-122161 or whatsapp +256-776-200002 OR email: greening.uganda@gmail.com or cs@greeninguganda.org

 
Sprouting Ginger Rhizomes ready for planting. To place an order for Ginger rhizomes for planting, and advise on Ginger growing
 
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